The province of Çanakkale has based the roots of many civilizations there were civilizations coming here in order to setle in this region as well as in order for invasion. Gelibolu Peninsula, located on the northwest of the Dardanelles called Hellespontos in mythology was once known as Khersonessos (Hersonessos), and the earth in Biga Peninsula was known as Troas. The excaations and investigations executed show that the first settlement in Troas was established in 3500 BC. Within the boundry of Çanakkale, very important first era civilizations such as Troia, Dardanos, Abydos, Assos, Sestos and Galipolis were established.
After being dominated by the Akhians', Dorians', Trakians' and Lidians', Troia passed to Persians. After changing hands among Sparta, Athens and Persia for some time, it went under the domination of Alexander the Great. Alexander the Great defeated Persian armies in a war on he shore of Kocabaş (Biga) River (known as Gronikons once) on this land. After the domination of Serevkos Pontos and Rome, while it was under the domination of Byzantine, it was invaded by the Huns in 5AD and bu the Arabs in 8AD. The land which was under the dominance of the crusaders and Venitans went under the dominance of Karesioğulları early in the 14AD and under the dominance of the Otoman Empire in the middle of the 14AD. Fatih Sultan Mehmet, who saw that the Dardanelles were being treated by the navies coming from the west, constructed castles on the shores of the Dardanelles in order to monitor and protect safety. Although Köprülü Mehmet Paşa afterwards took some precations, too the Dardanelles were attacked by many times by the foreign navies until the perion Turkish Republic.